Publications

Dr Nicholas Eastaugh

Publications

Editions of The Pigment Compendium:

  • Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin and Ruth Siddall, The Pigment Compendium, Elsevier (2008), 958pp.

  • Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin and Ruth Siddall, The Pigment Compendium CD-ROM, Elsevier (2005). [Software by Nicholas Eastaugh]

  • Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin and Ruth Siddall, The Pigment Compendium. A Dictionary of Historical Pigments, Elsevier (2004). 499pp.

  • Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin and Ruth Siddall, The Pigment Compendium. Polarised Light Microscopy of Historical Pigments, Elsevier (2004), 416pp.

Sections ‘A taxonomy of historical pigments’ and ‘Optical and physical properties of pigment particles from polarised light microscopy’ are available for download as PDF files from http://pigmentum.org/publications/compendium/.

Selected publications

Jilleen Nadolny and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Technical Feature: Authentic – or Not?’, The Picture Restorer, 45 (2014) pp. 16-20.

Nicholas Eastaugh, Jilleen Nadolny and Weronika Swiech, ‘Interpretation of documentary sources for the industrial preparation of ‘zinc white’ in the nineteenth century’, pp. 102-108. In: Making and transforming art: changes in artists' materials and practice. ICOM-CC Working Group on Art Technological Source Research (ATSR) 5th International Symposium, KIK-IRPA Brussels, Belgium, 22-23 November 2012, Eds H. Dubois, S. Eyb-Green, S. Kroustallis, J. Nadolny and J. Townsend, London: Archetype Press Ltd. (2014).

Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Lessons from the Beltracchi case: Conceptual aspects, methodology and protocols around the scientific view on the material of art’, pp. 79-91. In book: Henry Keazor and Tina Öcal (Eds), Der Fall Beltracchi und die Folgen. Interdisziplinäre Fälschungenforschung heute, De Gruyter: Berlin (2014).

Jilleen Nadolny and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘The analytical results of a group of Beltracchi forgeries and some historical context to their reception’, pp. 59-77.  In book: Henry Keazor and Tina Öcal (Eds), Der Fall Beltracchi und die Folgen. Interdisziplinäre Fälschungenforschung heute, De Gruyter: Berlin (2014).

Nicholas Eastaugh and Jilleen Nadolny, ‘Science for the Art Market: A Buyer’s Guide’, ArtBanc Issue 7 (2014) pp. 33-7.

Ian Hamerton, Lauren Tedaldi and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘A Systematic Examination of Colour Development in Synthetic Ultramarine According to Historical Methods’, PLOS ONE (13 February 2013). http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050364

Nicholas Eastaugh, contributions in: Conservation of Easel Paintings, Eds J. Hill Stoner & R. Rushfield, Routledge: New York (2012).

  • Chapter 8: Nicholas Eastaugh, Jilleen Nadolny and Sarah Lowengard, Pigments in Western easel painting, pp. 189-207.

  • Chapter 18: Nicholas Eastaugh and Valentine Walsh, Techniques of examination used by the Conservator: Optical Microscopy, pp. 306-317.

Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘From source to chronology: studies on macro-scale behaviour in art technology’, pp. 1-9. In: (Eds) Sigrid Eyb-Green, Joyce H. Townsend, Mark Clarke, Jilleen Nadolny and Stefanos Kroustallis, The Artist’s Process. Technology and Interpretation. Proceedings of the fourth symposium of the Art Technological Source Research Working Group, Archetype Press Ltd., London (2012).

Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Defining Methodological Problems: a Case Study on Paint Analysis and the Technological Study of Manuscripts’ The Technological Study of Manuscripts as Artefacts. Research questions and analytical solutions, Eds Neate, S. et al., BAR International Series 2209 (2011).

Jilleen Nadolny and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘X-ray and Infrared Examination Report’. In: Christie’s, Nicolas Poussin Ordination, Evening Sale, Tuesday 7 December 2010, Auction Catalogue (2010) pp. 52-55.

Luís A. L. Silva, John A. Campbell, Nicholas Eastaugh and Bernard F. Buxton, ‘A Case for Folk Arguments in Case-Based Reasoning’ ICCBR 2010 (2010).

Luís A. L. Silva, John A. Campbell, Nicholas Eastaugh and Bernard F. Buxton, ‘A Case for Numerical Taxonomy in Case-Based Reasoning’ Proceedings SBIA 2008, Eds G. Zaverucha and A.L. da Costa (2008).

Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Authenticity and the Scientific Method. Past approaches, present problems and future promise’ AIC PSG Postprints 20 (2008) pp. 1-10.

Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Analyzing Jackson Pollock: Scientific Methods and the Study of the Matter paintings’, pp. 121-132. In catalogue: Landau, E. and Cernuschi, C. Pollock Matters, McMullen Museum of Art: Boston (2007).

Nicholas Eastaugh and Bhavini Gorsia, ‘What It Says on the Tin: A Preliminary Study of the Set of Paint Cans and the Floor in the Pollock-Krasner Studio’, pp. 145-156. In catalogue: E. Landau and C. Cernuschi, Pollock Matters McMullen Museum of Art: Boston (2007).

Valentine Walsh and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Historical pigment research: the work of the Pigmentum Project’, Infocus 2 Royal Microscopical Society, June (2006) pp. 38-57.

Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Scientific dating of paintings’, Infocus 1 Royal Microscopical Society (March 2006) pp. 30-9.

Charles Tracy, et al, ‘The Adisham ‘Reredos’. What is it?’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 156 (2003) pp. 27-78.

Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Ruth Siddall, Tracey Chaplin and Henryk Herman, ‘Towards a taxonomy of pigments’, art 2002. 7th International Conference on Non-destructive Testing, 2-6 June 2002 (2002).

Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Ruth Siddall, Tracey Chaplin and Henryk Herman, ‘Development of protocols for a large analytical database project of historic pigments’, Proceedings, ICS Edinburgh Conference, 2002 (2002).

Nicholas Eastaugh and Rosalind Whitehouse, ‘From Munnings to Mondriaan: studies in the deterioration of early twentieth century artists’ materials’, in Deterioration of Artists’ Paints: Effects and Analysis, 10-11 September 2001, ICOM-CC/UKIC: London (2001) pp.61-5.

Michael K. Komanecky, Isabel Horovitz and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Antwerp artists and the practice of painting on copper’, Painting Techniques: history, materials and studio practice. Preprints of the contributions to the IIC Dublin Congress (1998) pp. 136-9.

Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Some dyes and dye-based pigments in Turner's palette’, Turner's Techniques in Context Proceedings UKIC Symposium, UKIC: London (1995) pp.46-9.

Selected conference papers

Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Some ontological challenges from historical colour terminology in developing a modern pigment thesaurus’, Colour Terminology Workshop, Max Planck Research Group ‘Art and Knowledge in Pre-Modern Europe’, Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin, 31 January-1 February (2013).

Nicholas Eastaugh and Sarah Lowengard, ‘Scientific Analysis and Works of Art Connect to Create a Profession? Notes on the Perennially Emerging Field of Technical Art History’, paper presented at the ‘Three Societies’ conference on History of Science, Oxford, 4-6 July (2008).

Nicholas Eastaugh, G.W. Grime, and C. Jeynes, ‘Artists’ pigments in the age of industrialisation: Trace element analysis of modern lead based pigments using PIXE and RBS’ IBA Meeting (2007).

Nicholas Eastaugh, Jaap J. Boon and Valentine Walsh, ‘The ‘Lazurite’ database: An image-based solution for recording and presenting data from painting studies’ ICOM-CC The Hague (2005).

Mark Clarke, et al, ‘Pigments from Pompeii – Issues in an inter-laboratory comparison of dye analysis’ Art’05, Lecce (2005).

Public Lectures

Dr Nicholas Eastaugh regularly delivers public lectures, often on the popular topic of authenticity in art. Recent examples include:

  • Forging Ahead: The Jägers-Beltracchi Case and the evolving role of scientific and technical art historical analysis in authentication, ICON Paintings Group, London, 2012; Edinburgh, 2014.

  • The Jägers forgery case: Where next for art authentication?, University of Zurich, 2011.

  • Science and authenticity in art, University of Durham, 2010.

  • Science in the Fight against Forgery: Art and Authenticity, Les Brooke Memorial Lecture, University of Bath, 2009.

  • Detection of counterfeit art, Royal Society of Chemistry, Loughborough, 2009.

  • Science on Leonardo. Discoveries from Analysis of the Paintings, Leonardo Study Day, Victoria and Albert Museum, 2006.

  • Art and Microscopy, Royal Microscopical Society, London, 2005.

  • The detection of fraud in paintings. Scientific analysis and art history, Society of Chemical Industry, London, 2005.

  • The role of science in fighting art fraud, British Science Association, Exeter, 2004.

Dr Jilleen Nadolny

Publications

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘Recipes for Deceit: Documentary Sources for the Production of Painting Forgeries, c. 1400-1900’. In: Sources on Art Technology: Back to Basics. ICOM-CC Working Group on Art Technological Source Research (ATSR) 6th International Symposium, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16-17 June 2014, London: Archetype Press Ltd. (forthcoming).

Jilleen Nadolny and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘Technical Feature: Authentic – or Not?’, The Picture Restorer, 45 (2014) pp.16-20.

Nicholas Eastaugh, Jilleen Nadolny and Weronika Swiech, ‘Interpretation of documentary sources for the industrial preparation of ‘zinc white’ in the nineteenth century’, pp. 102-108. In: Making and transforming art: changes in artists' materials and practice. ICOM-CC Working Group on Art Technological Source Research (ATSR) 5th International Symposium, KIK-IRPA Brussels, Belgium, 22-23 November 2012, Eds H. Dubois, S. Eyb-Green, S. Kroustallis, J. Nadolny and J. Townsend, London: Archetype Press Ltd. (2014).

Jilleen Nadolny and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘The analytical results of a group of Beltracchi forgeries and some historical context to their reception’ pp. 59-77. In: Henry Keazor and Tina Öcal (eds), Der Fall Beltracchi und die Folgen. Interdisziplinäre Fälschungenforschung heute, De Gruyter: Berlin (2014), with illustrations.

Nicholas Eastaugh and Jilleen Nadolny, ‘Science for the Art Market: A Buyer’s Guide’, ArtBanc Issue 7 (2014) pp. 33-7.

Jilleen Nadolny, contributions in: Conservation of Easel Paintings, Eds J. Hill Stoner & R. Rushfield, Routledge: New York (2012).

  • Chapter 1: Jilleen Nadolny, Mark Clarke, Erma Hermens, Ann Massing and Leslie Carlyle, Chapter 1. Art technological source research: documentary sources on European painting to the twentieth century, pp. 3-32.

  • Chapter 8: Nicholas Eastaugh, Jilleen Nadolny and Sarah Lowengard, Pigments in Western easel painting, pp. 189-207.

  • Chapter 21: Jilleen Nadolny, A history of early scientific examination and analysis of painting materials ca. 1780 to the mid-twentieth century, pp. 336-40.

  • Chapter 34: Jilleen Nadolny, History of visual compensation for paintings, pp. 573-85.

Elizabeth Woolley, Jilleen Nadolny and Lisa Shekede, ‘Tin relief on thirteenth-century Cypriot wall painting: technology and conservation’, Preprints: The Decorative: Conservation and the Applied Arts. 24th IIC Congress, 10-14 September, 2012, Vienna. IIC, London (2012).

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘Painters’ Guilds c. 1200-c. 1600’, Transmission of Artists’ Knowledge. Seminar, 16 June 2011, Eds M. Clarke, B. De Munck & S. Dupré, Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie van Belgie voor Wetenschappen en Kusten: Brussels (2011) pp. 31-40.

Jilleen Nadolny and Nicholas Eastaugh, ‘X-ray and Infrared Examination Report’. In: Christie’s, Nicolas Poussin Ordiation, Evening Sale, Tuesday 7 December 2010, Auction Catalogue (2010) pp. 52-55.

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘Documentary Sources for the use of moulds in the Production of tin relief: cause and effect’, Sources and Serendipity: Testimonies of Artists’ Practice. ICOM-CC Working Group on Art Technological Source Research (ATSR) 3rd International Symposium, Glasgow University, Scotland, 12-13 June 2008, Eds. E. Hermens and J. Townsend, Archetype Press Ltd.: London (2009) pp. 39-49, plates 13-17.

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘One craft, many names: gilders, preparers, and polychrome painters in the 15th and 16th centuries’, in ICOM-CC Preprints, 15th Triennial Meeting, New Delhi, 22-26 September 2008 (2 volumes), Ed. J. Bridgeland, ICOM-CC/Allied Publishers: New Delhi (2008) Vol. 1, pp. 10-17.

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘European documentary sources before c. 1550 relating to painting grounds applied to wooden supports: translation and terminology’, in Preparation for Painting: the artist’s choice and its consequence, ICOM-CC Paintings Specialty Group Interim Meeting Postprints, London, 31 May-1 June, 2007, Eds. J. Townsend, T. Doherty, G. Heydenreich, J. Ridge, Archetype Press Ltd.: London (2008) pp. 1-13.

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘All That’s Burnished isn’t Bole: Reflections on Medieval Water-Gilding (Part I: Early Medieval to c.1300)’, in Medieval Painting in Northern Europe: Techniques, Analysis, Art History. Studies in Commemoration of the 70th Birthday of Unn Plahter, Ed. J. Nadolny, with K. Kollandsrud et al., Archetype Press Ltd.: London (2006) pp. 148-62.

Jilleen Nadolny and Ashok Roy, ‘The Original Technique of the Westminster Abbey Portrait of Richard II’, in Medieval Painting in Northern Europe: Techniques, Analysis, Art History. Studies in Commemoration of the 70th Birthday of Unn Plahter, Ed. J. Nadolny, with K. Kollandsrud et al., Archetype Press Ltd.: London (2006) pp. 137-47.

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘A Problem of Methodology: Merrifield, Eastlake and the use of oil-based media by medieval English painters’, in ICOM-CC Preprints, 14th Triennial Meeting, The Hague, 12-16 September 2005 (2 volumes), Ed. I. Verger, James & James: London (2005) Vol. 2, pp. 1028-33.

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘A Contribution to the Historiography of Technical Studies: A Summary of the First Century of Published Scientific Analyses of Paintings and Polychromy, c. 1780-1880’, Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 31st American Institute of Conservation of Historic Works & Artistic Works Annual Meeting, Arlington, Virginia, June 5-10, 2003, AIC, Washington, D.C. (2003) pp. 5-6.

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘The technical and stylistic context of the relief backgrounds of the Thornham Parva Retable and the Cluny Frontal’, in Painting and Practice: The Thornham Parva Retable. Technique, Construction and Context of an English Medieval Painting, Ed. A. Massing, The Hamilton Kerr Institute and Harvey Miller Publishers, London and Turnhout (2003) pp. 174-88.

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘The first century of published scientific analyses of the materials of historical painting and polychromy, circa 1780-1880’, Reviews in Conservation 4 (2003) pp. 39-51.

Jilleen Nadolny, The techniques and use of gilded relief decoration by northern European painters, c. 1200-1500. Unpublished PhD thesis (2 volumes), The Courtauld Institute, Department of Conservation and Technology, London University, London (2000).

Jilleen Nadolny, ‘Some observations on northern European metalbeaters and metal leaf in the late Middle Ages’, in The Materials, Technology, and Art of Conservation, Studies in honor of Larry Majewski on the occasion of his 80th birthday, IFA, New York (1999) pp. 134-60.

Edited books

Jilleen Nadolny and Karoline Beltinger (Eds), [Working Title] Contributions of the members of the International Working Group on the use of Tempera in the 19th century, Archetype/Swiss Institute of Art Sciences (forthcoming 2015/6).

(Eds) Sigrid Eyb-Green, Joyce H. Townsend, Mark Clarke, Jilleen Nadolny and Stefanos Kroustallis, The Artist’s Process. Technology and Interpretation. Proceedings of the fourth symposium of the Art Technological Source Research Working Group, Archetype Press Ltd., London (2012).

Jilleen Nadolny (ed.), with Kaja Kollandsrud, Marie Louise Sauerberg and Tine Frøysaker, Medieval Painting in Northern Europe: Techniques, Analysis, Art History. Studies in Commemoration of the 70th Birthday of Unn Plahter, Archetype Press Ltd., London (2006).

Translations

Translation of technical articles from German, French and Norwegian to English. Work includes:

  • (Norwegian – with Katja Stieglitz) Biljana Topalova-Casadiego (Munch Museum, Oslo), ‘Technical Aspects of Edvard Munch’s Painting’, in Edvard Munch, The Complete Paintings, G. Woll (ed.), London: Thames and Hudson (2009).
  • (French) Elisabeth Ravaud and Myriam Eveno (Louvre, Paris), ‘Technical Study of the Panels of Sassetta’s Borgo San Sepolcro Altarpiece in French Collections’, in Sassetta: The Borgo San Sepolcro Altarpiece, M. Israëls (ed.), Cambridge: Harvard University Press (2009).
  • (French) Inès Villela-Petit, ‘Copies, Reworkings and Renewals in Late Medieval Recipe Books’, pp. 167-81. In book: Medieval Painting in Northern Europe: Techniques, Analysis, Art History. Studies in Commemoration of the 70th Birthday of Unn Plahter, Jilleen Nadolny (Ed.), Archetype Press Ltd., London (2006).

Public Lectures

Dr Jilleen Nadolny regularly lectures for general audiences in addition to her academic work. Recent examples include:

  • The Art of Detection, Public lecture series for the Education Department, The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 15 March, 2015.

  • A history of forgery of painting and approaches to its detection, Lecture at the Department of Conservation, University of Lisbon (Portugal), 17 February, 2015.

  • Technical and Practical Constraints in Imaging Opulence: The Use of Gold in Medieval and Early Renaissance Painting, Conference: Goldraum, hosted by the Technical University, Munich (Germany), 10 February, 2015.

  • Recipes for Deceit, The Forgery of Paintings 1300–1900, at Conference: Back to Basics. ICOM-CC Working Group on Art Technological Source Research (ATSR) 6th International Symposium, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (Netherlands), 16-17 June, 2014.

  • Panel Discussion: Aspects of Technical Art History, at The Oxford Seminar on Current Issues in Russian Avant-Garde Painting, Organised by AA&R at Trinity College, Oxford, March, 2014. For a review of the seminar, click here.

  • The Material (Im)possibility of a Perfect Forgery, at View: A Festival of Art History, Institut-Français, London, 8 February, 2014.

  • Technical Examination of Fakes and Forgeries of Russian Painting, Panel on Russian Art, Russian Art Week, London, 31 May, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9qhExsA6bdk

  • Fine Art Forensic Workshop, with Nicholas Eastaugh, The Forensic Society, London, 19 April, 2013.

Nica Gutman Rieppi

Publications

Nica Gutman Rieppi, Beth A. Price, Kenneth Sutherland and Tom J. Tague Jr., ‘Salvator Mundi: An Investigation of the Artist’s Materials and Techniques’, Salvator Mundi Rediscovered, Yale University Press: London, forthcoming (2015).

Nica Gutman Rieppi, ‘From Florence to Bologna: examination and treatment of Giuliano Bugiardini’s ‘Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist’’, Web Publication of The Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts: New York University (2012). http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/fineart/conservation/kress/bugiardini/intro.htm

Mark Tucker and Nica Gutman, ‘Photographs and the Making of Paintings’, in Manly Pursuits: Writings on the Sporting Images of Thomas Eakins, Ed. Ilene Susan Fort, Los Angeles County Museum of Art: Los Angeles (2010) pp. 427-37.

Nica Gutman, ‘Underdrawings of Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne’. In: Lawrence Principe and Lloyd De Witt, Transmutations: Alchemy in Art: Selected Works from the Eddleman and Fisher Collections at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Chemical Heritage Foundation: Philadelphia (2002).

Nica Gutman and Mark Tucker, “Thomas Eakins and the Pursuit of ‘True Tones”, in AIC Paintings Specialty Group Postprints 15: Papers Presented at the Thirtieth Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Miami, Florida, June 6-11, 2002, AIC: Washington, D.C. (2002) pp. 3-15.

Andrew Lins, Lucille A. Giannuzzi, Frederick A. Stevie, Beth A. Price, Mark Tucker and Nica Gutman, ‘FIB/TEM Analysis of Paint Layers from Thomas Eakins’ The Crucifixion, 1880’, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI: Symposium held November 26-30, 2001, Boston, MA, Materials Research Society (2001) pp. 113-18.

Mark Tucker and Nica Gutman, ‘The Pursuit of ‘True Tones’’, Thomas Eakins, ed. Darrell Sewell, Philadelphia Museum of Art: Philadelphia (2001) pp. 353-65.

Mark Tucker and Nica Gutman, ‘Thomas Eakins: Photographs and the Making of Paintings’, Thomas Eakins, ed. Darrell Sewell, Philadelphia Museum of Art: Philadelphia (2001) pp. 225-38.

Talks and Lectures

Mike Murawski, Dawson Carr, Nica Gutman Rieppi, ‘Inside Look: Conserving the Circle of Bronzino’s "Madonna & Child with Infant St. John"’, On-line Panel Discussion, Portland Art Museum, Streamed Live 6 August (2014).  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PuSB5cyMIQk

Nica Gutman Rieppi, ‘The Technical Study of Paintings and their Structure’, presentation for The Structures of Art, Summer Teachers Institute in Technical Art History (STITAH), hosted by the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, in partnership with the University Art Gallery, Yale University, 21 July, 2014 (2014).

Nica Gutman Rieppi, ‘Leonardo da Vinci - Recent Technical Findings and Discoveries’, paper presented in the Technical Symposium, New York University and Columbia University, February 18, 2012 (2012).

Dianne Modestini, Nica Gutman Rieppi, Beth A. Price, Kenneth Sutherland, Robert Simon and Thomas J. Tague Jr., ‘Leonardo da Vinci’s ‘Salvator Mundi’ Rediscovered’. Paper presented at the CHARISMA conference Leonardo da Vinci's Technical Practice: Paintings, Drawings and Influence, organized jointly by the National Gallery (London), Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the British Museum: London, 13-14 January (2012).

Nica Gutman Rieppi, ‘Infrared Reflectography and its application in Technical Studies of Paintings’, tripartite presentation to the Summer Teachers Institute in Technical Art History (STITAH), hosted by the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, in partnership with the University Art Gallery, Yale University, July (2011).

Nica Gutman, ‘Thomas Eakins: Paintings and Photography’, Paper presented to American Arts Council, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, April 17 (2002).

Nica Gutman, ‘Thomas Eakins: Photographs and the Making of Paintings’, Paper presented to the Microscopy Society of America, Philadelphia Museum of Art (2002).

Nica Gutman, ‘Secret Process: Eakins, Paintings and Photography’, Subscription Lecture Series on Thomas Eakins, Metropolitan Museum of Art, May 28 (2002).

Nica Gutman, Art and Optics Symposium, organized by the New York Institute for the Humanities at New York University: member of the “Experts on Individual Artists” panel, and presented a paper on Thomas Eakins in relation to David Hockney’s theories regarding opticality in western painting of the past 600 years, December 1-2 (2001).

Suzanne Penn, Mark Tucker and Nica Gutman. The findings published in 'Thomas Eakins: Photographs and the Making of Paintings', In book: Thomas Eakins (2001), were the subject of the award-winning documentary Thomas Eakins: A Sharp Eye on Nature. Video was integrated into the Thomas Eakins: American Realist exhibition, Fall 2001, and was aired on the Public Broadcasting System, October (2001).